Newfoundland and Labrador is a Canadian Atlantic province with an area of 405,212 square kilometres (156,500 sq mi). The province is located in eastern Canada and comprises two main parts: the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador, which is located northwest of the island. As of October 2010, the province's estimated population is 509,200. Approximately 94 percent of the province's population resides on the Island of Newfoundland (including its associated smaller islands), of which over half live on the Avalon Peninsula. The Island of Newfoundland has its own dialects of English, French, and Irish. The English dialect in Labrador is similar to that of Newfoundland. Labrador also has its own dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut.
Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's twentieth-largest Census Metropolitan Area, and is home to nearly 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland and Labrador became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as Newfoundland. On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to Newfoundland and Labrador. In day-to-day conversation, however, Canadians generally still refer to the province itself as Newfoundland and to the region on the Canadian mainland as Labrador.
The name Newfoundland is derived from English as "New Found Land" (a translation from the Latin Terra Nova). The origin of Labrador is uncertain; most authorities credit it to João Fernandes Lavrador, a Portuguese explorer, and lavrador a title meaning "landholder".