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Its component provinces are A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra. It is bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Bay of Biscay to the north. Besides its continental territory, Galicia includes Arousa Island, and the archipelagos of Cíes, Ons, Sálvora Island, Cortegada Island, Malveiras Islands, Sisargas Islands, and other minor isles and islets.
Galicia has roughly 2.79 million inhabitants as of 2011, with the largest concentration in two coastal areas, from Ferrol to A Coruña in the north-west, and from Vilagarcía to Vigo in the south-west. The capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality with 297,332 inhabitants and the second most populous city with 206,411 habitants; while A Coruña is the most populous city with 220,581 habitants and the second most populous municipality with 246,056 habitants in its municipality (INE 2009). Both cities are the cores of the two major metropolitan areas of Galicia.
Two languages are official and widely used in Galicia, Galician, a Romance language which, along with Portuguese, descends from medieval Galician-Portuguese, and Castilian.